Six years later, the consultancy and think tank SustainAbility, in partnership with the Global Compact and the United Nations Environmental Programme, published The 21st Century NGO: In the Market for Change. This report provides more of a behind-the-scenes look at the mission, strategies, and operations of global NGOs. The global focus can be unfamiliar to a US audience where NGOs work less with government and more with corporations, but the insights into NGO operations are invaluable. Their categorization of NGOs as sharks, orcas, sealions, or dolphins provides a useful framework for understanding the nature of different organizations; especially those that seek to polarize versus those seeking constructive partnerships.
Business-NGO partnerships were the focus of a later study produced by the Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) and the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), entitled Guide to Successful Corporate-NGO Partnerships. The report is filled with case studies documenting good practices that led to successful partnerships between large corporations and a variety of environmental NGOs.